English-French glossary on urban renewal


Bottom upDu bas vers le haut/DescendantA principle in urban and spatial planning as well as organisation that basically means the development „from the single to the general” and refers to different instruments of participation. Often used in combination with top-down processes (See:counter flow principle and top-down).
BrownfieldFriche industrielleUrban land that has been previously developed and used for industrial and/or service (e.g. transport) purposes but has been abandoned for a while. The old buildings might still exist but are in very bad condition, the land is pretty often contaminated.
City CouncilConseil MunicipalIn the cities they are the elected bodies of local authorities. Local governments generally include the mayor the counsellors (See: Participation
Civil organisationAssociation de la société civileRegistered charities, development non-governmental organisations populating the civil society
Civil societySociété civileThe arena of uncoerced collective action around shared interests, purposes and values
CommunityGroupe localA social network or group of interacting individuals usually concentrated into a defined territory, its members have some relations that are communal.
CompensationIndemnisationA symbolic restitution of properties confiscated during the communist period: the compensation did not achieve the total value of the property: In some countries (Germany) it had been realised in money, in others (Hungary) in forms of vouchers.
Co-ownershipCopropriétéDifferent owners in one building, with a common ownership.
Cooperative housingHabitat coopératifCo-operative housing (or co-op housing) is owned and maintained by a non-profit, non-governmental housing organisation in which residents have a share, but residents are not owners of their flats. See: in former state socialist countries cooperative housing was a popular form of housing before 1990, where dwellings were constructed by state firms or cooperative enterprises for sale through the local councils.
Cultural heritagePatrimoine culturelQualities and attributes of places that have aesthetic, historic, scientific or social value for past, present or future generations. These values may be seen in a place’s physical features, but importantly can also be intangible qualities such as peoples associations with, or feelings for a place. (See: heritage)
DecentralisationDécentralisationTransfer of central competencies towards the local units of public administration
DiscriminationDiscriminationClassifies people into different groups in which group members receive distinct and typically unequal treatments and rights within the society without any rational justification.
DisempowermentAbsence de reconnaissanceInhabitants of a particular neighbourhood are increasingly treated as clients and not as participants.
DisplacementDélocalisation d’habitants / relogementThe process by which people are removed involuntarily from their homes or neighbourhoods This procedure is the more general related to urban regeneration or other type of urban investments that are in the mean time the origins of gentrification processes. (See: gentrification).
DistrictArrondissementAdmonistrative unit within the city
EmpowermentRenforcement des capacités de catégories dominées /Développement du pouvoir d’agirLiterally ‘giving power to’, a term which is used to describe residents’ involvement and active participation in neighbourhood affairs and decision making in which they are living.
ExclusionExclusionThe process when a social group is being squeezed out to the margins of society, leading to its disempowerment.
Exclusion - EconomicExclusion économiqueWhen the process of marginalisation is related to the low economic position of the given social group.
Exclusion - SocialExclusion socialeWhen the process is related to the special position of the group within the society (ethnical, racial, religious etc.) (See: discrimination)
GentrificationGentrification / embourgeoisementThe process of neighbourhood upgrading by relatively affluent incomers (yuppies) who move into a poorer neighbourhood in sufficient numbers to displace lower-income groups and transform its social identity.
HeritagePatrimoineA building or a neighbourhood that represents a special value for the past, present and future development of the city. If the building or neighbourhood is recognised officially as  , special rules and restrictions will be available for its reconstruction / rehabilitation or renewal. (See: Cultural heritage)
Historical districtsQuartiers historiquesHistoric districts are usually older parts of cities with central location where the buildings and the landscape belong to national heritage. (See: Cultural heritage)
Historical monumentMonument historiqueAny site, object, building, structure or group of structures of particular historic significance to the city.
Housing rehabilitationRéhabilitation de logementsThe process of giving back the original value of housing after decay
Housing stockParc de logementsThe ensemble of housing units.
InclusionInclusionThe process of the integration of a social group within the majority society. It is often the objective of social based urban regeneration programs. The inverse of exclusion
Integrated urban renewal / urban developmentRenouvellement / développement urbain intégréA complex development / renewal of a neighbourhood, taking into account, appart form the physical aspects of urban development also other (soft) elements, such as social cohesion, culture and cultural heritage, economy, employment, environment, sustainable developemt, etc. since the 2007-13 planning period, integrated urban development plans are the basis of neighburhood renewal programs to be financed under the operational programes of the European Union (ERDF/ESF)
Land-useOccupation des solsThe function and the type of construction applied on urban plots. On the level of the entire city, it permits the differentiation of functional areas and serves as a base for urban policies. (See: land-use plan)
Large housing estatesGrands ensemblesThe most visible and uniform product of post-war housing construction and urban planning. High-rise housing estates were located mainly on the periphery of cities, often built by local authorities, to provide modern housing for the lower classes. In Eastern Europe, they were mostly constructed by prefabricated elements.
Local authorityCollectivité localeLocal authorities are equivalent to municipalities. They provide local government and public services for a city or city district (township). (See Municipality)
MinorityMinoritéA culturally or ethnically distinct social group within the majority society
Modernisation of housingModernisation /Réhabilitation des logementsImprovement of the standard quality of housing
Multiplier effectsEffets multiplicateursShorthand for the process when success breeds success.
Municipal housing companySociété municipale de logementsMunicipal enterprise owning and administrating the municipality’s housing stock.
MunicipalityMunicipalitéMunicipalities are in most countries the lowest administrative units with directly elected political councils.
NeighbourhoodQuartierDiffuse concept of urban district
NGOONGNon governmental organisation: non profit based civil organisation of public utility, in principle independent of any political/governmental authorities.
Owner AssociationAssociation de propriétairesLegally based interest group of inhabitants owning one or more housing units.
Owner occupied housingLogement occupé par son propriétaire / Propriétaire occupantWhere member of a household owns a house or an apartment where the household lives.
PartnershipPartenariatFinancing-based cooperation of different actors in a development project. Special form: Public-private partnership (PPP)
ParticipationParticipationInvolvement of residents in local events, groups and processes in ways that make sense to them in building their social resources, including consultation as well as participation in decision making and management. (See: consultation)
PovertyPauvretéRelative measure within a society, being the state of having income and/or wealth as low as to be unable to maintain what is considered a minimum.
Prefabricated housingLogement préfabriquéHousing constructed by prefabricated elements, the basis of housing estates of the 1960s, 70s and 80s.
PreservationPréservationCreatively maintaining the historic built environment in cities and controlling the landscape component of which it is an integral part. Preservation helps to maintain identity, educates people about history…
Privatisation of HousingPrivatisation de logementsThe sale of public (state or local government) owned housing stock to private investors: persons or companies.
« Socially Integrative City » ProgramPolitique de la villeSubsidy-Program set up by the federal government as well as by the federal states to support urban policies especially in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods
RestitutionRestitutionOne form of privatisation in the former state socialist countries after 1989-90. The term refers to the return of state property (including housing) to its legal owners or their heirs from whom the right of ownership was violated by the communist authorities after World War II. In some East Central European countries restitution was fully or partly implemented (e.g. East Germany, Czech Republic), in others it was combined with other forms of privatisation (e.g., Baltic states, Poland). In Germany it was legally fixed in the Act for the Regulation of Unresolved Property Issues (Property Act) (Gesetz zur Regelung offener Vermögensfragen) that is part of the Unification Treaty.
RestorationRestaurationThe process of giving back the original physical form of a building.
RomaRomsThe group of romas is the most important ethnical minority in East-central European countries
Social housingLogement socialHousing where the access is controlled by the existence of allocation rules favouring households that have difficulties in finding accommodation in the market.
Social integrationIntégration socialeSocial cohesion
Social mixMixité socialeGeneral term for neighbourhoods in which different social strata live side by side.
Social segregationSégrégation socialeSeparation of different social groups within a given society.
Social sustainabilityDéveloppement social durableAddresses the question of how societies can shape their modes of change so as to ensure the preconditions of development for future generations. (Becker et al. 1999). Related to principles as social integration, social cohesion, social mix.
Social urban renewalRenouvellement urbain socialUrban renewal aiming the reinfording of the local society, based on the particpation of localinhabitants. A notion created by the Budapest Municipality in 2005 on the bases of the idea of integrated urban renewal programs.
Spatial PolicyAménagement du territoirePublic policy treating and combining the territorial impacts of different sectoral policies (environment, transport, education, health, housing etc). All sectors have some aspect of  , although this is usually not made explicit.
StigmatisationStigmatisationNegative branding of a ®neighbourhood and its residents.
Strategic approachApproche stratégiqueNew approach in urban policy that has evolved with the appearance of the concept and practice of urban regeneration.
Sustainable developmentDéveloppement durableDevelopment that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own need” (UN Our Common Future, 1987)
Tenant AssociationAssociation ou amicale de locatairesLegally based interest group of inhabitants living in rented housing.
Top downDu haut vers le bas/AscendantA principle in urban and spatial planning as well as organisation that basically means the application of existing general ideas for single cases. Often used in combination with bottom-up processes.
Urban planningAménagement urbainIs related to the conception on urban development and to the implementation of urban policies
Urban competitivenessCompétitivité urbaineThe degree to which cities can produce goods and services which meet the demand of wider regional, national or international markets
Urban decay / urban declineDégradation urbaineThe process when parts of the city become run down and undesirable for residents to live in.
Urban regenerationRenouvellement urbainIntegrated vision and action which leads to the resolution of urban problems and which seeks to bring about a lasting improvement in the economic, physical, social and environmental condition to an area that has been subject to urban decay.
Urban renewalRénovation urbaineGeneral concept involving repair, rebuilding and rehabilitation of run down urban areas which result in improvements in physical qualities of neighbourhoods.
Urban policiesPolitique urbaineAn ensemble of actions and approaches determined by different objectives, aims and interests related to the urban development.
Urban restructuringRestructuration urbaineChanging of the social, economic or spatial structures of a city
ValueValeurSocially shared ideas about what is good, right and desirable.
WastelandFricheLots of land especially in inner-urban locations that fell out of use (smaller dimension than brown field and not necessarily related to industry) -->friche industrielle, brownfield