Modes de gouvernance alimentaire dans cinq villes européennes
Ce tableau est extrait d’un des rapports du projet " Food in cities : study on innovation for a sustainable and healthy production, delivery and consumption of food in cities " mené conjointement par Eurocities et la Ville de Milan (Italie). L’objectif principal de cette étude conduite entre 2016 et 2017 était de mieux comprendre la dynamique de l’innovation alimentaire dans les villes et de clarifier le rôle que les projets de recherche et d’innovation de l’UE peuvent jouer pour les soutenir.
Le tableau (en anglais) présente un résumé de 5 études de cas portant sur les villes de Rotterdam (Pays-Bas), Ljubljana (Slovénie), Göteborg (Suède), Milan (Italie) et Lisbonne (Portugal) visant à comprendre :
1. La stratégie globale de la ville ou les actions liées à l’alimentation.
2. Les résultats et les livrables du ou des projets financés par l’Europe en matière d’alimentation au(x)quel(s) la ville a participé.
3. Le rôle de ces projets dans l’élaboration de la stratégie alimentaire globale (ou des actions) de la ville.
4. La place du financement européen de la recherche et de l’innovation par rapport à d’autres sources de financement mobilisées par la ville.
Il s’attache plus particulièrement à identifier les portes d’entrée choisies par chacune pour travailler la question alimentaire ainsi que les modes de gouvernance mis en place.
Mode de gouvernance alimentaire
|Presence of a holistic food strategy||No, is present « the food cluster » governance system||The city does not have a food strategy per se, but it is implementing a comprenhensive « strategy for rural development 2017-2020 »||A comprehnesive strategy is being developed, led by strong environemental considerations||A strategy is in development. The « guiding principles of the Milan food policy 2015-2020 » a result of a very participatory process with around 1000 stakeholders||No. there is a « municipal plan to combat food waste » dated february 2015|
|Who has main competence over food activities||The Rotterdam Food Cluster initiative is competence of the Economic Development department, but other food related actions are competence of the other city departments (i.e. inclusion and waste)||Mainly led by the Department of Environnemental protection. The Department for Pre-School learning and education and the one for Health and social security are also involved in the management of food related issues.||The food strategy is being developed by the Environment department, but the Real Estate Department which manage the peri-urban lands owned by the Municipality, is also involved into food activities.||The Vice-mayor has been recently appointed as the policy coordinator to foster an interdeparmental approache in the city. A food policy officer and food communication officer will soon assist her in the rôle of coordinator.||Many of the activities related to food and healthy food that are under the Social and Health Department. Some projectfs and activities are under the Green structure and energy department.|
|Main areas of work in the city||Business support and economic development, research and skills, combining health/medical with food research, increasing the position of Rottermdam as main European logistical food hub (port)||Food self-sufficiency – paying attention the socio-cultural implications of food (enfranchisement of rural people and preservation of rural culture)||Reducing the driver of climate change, urban and peri-urban farming, organic food, susatiable diets, social integration, food independence.||City sustainability trough food system sustainability. Healthy food and consumer awareness. Fight agains food waste. Agri-food research.||Healthy food, promoting Mediterranean regime, comabt childhood obesity, green infrastructures, social inclusion.|
|Role of food at the national level||Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries (LNV) was merged with the Ministry of Economic Affairs. The national level supports and collaborate int the City Deal initiative, a new form of collaboration between Dutch cities on their work on food.||A new and all-encompassing strategy on Food, Nutrition & Physical Activity ( FN&PA) was developed for the period 2015-2020, focusing on the relation between food and health (combating child obesity).||In 2015 the government began to draw a long terme national food strategy that will emerge from an intensive dialogue process with companies, organisations, etc.||Growing political consensus around food issues. 2016 avant-garde « Gadda law » agains food waste, preferring incentives to punishemnts. Development of EU scheme for fruits and vegetables at school addressing child obesity. However, not an overall food strategy.||The Directorate-General of Health is responsible since 2012 for the monitoring of the Portuguese National Programme for the Promotion of Healthy Eating, the Ministry of Health policy programme.|
|Type of stakeholders involved in food policy and actions||Companies, SMEs, researchers (triple helix). To a less extent farmers, consumers and CSOs.||The successful cas of GREEN SURGE saw the involvement of the Municipality, Universities (University of Ljubjana local leading partner), SMEs as official stakeholders and of an NGO (bringing in composite group including engaged students and school dropouts) as a project partner.||Farmers, migrants, schools, NGOs (e.g. Changemaker), resaerchers and the university (e.g. University of Gothenburg)||The OpenAgri project involved three main institutionnal partners – the local chamber of commerce, Polytechnic and science and technology park). In the other cases majority of partners academic institutions and SMEs (COLDIRETTI – Federation Italian Farmers).||Nationel level, migrants, schools, local producers, catering private institutions.|
in FOOD IN CITIES: STUDY ON INNOVATION FOR A SUSTAINABLE AND HEALTHY PRODUCTION, DELIVERY AND CONSUMPTION OF FOOD IN CITIES - Second report: In-depth case studies of cities having benefitted from EU funded projects - JUNE 30, 2017 - EUROCITIES, CITY OF MILAN - Anja De Cunto, Feyrouz Lajili-Djalaï, Cécile Michel, Francesco Brusaporco
FOOD IN CITIES: STUDY ON INNOVATION FOR A SUSTAINABLE AND HEALTHY PRODUCTION, DELIVERY AND CONSUMPTION OF FOOD IN CITIES - Second report: In-depth case studies of cities having benefitted from EU funded projects - JUNE 30, 2017 - EUROCITIES, CITY OF MILAN - Anja De Cunto, Feyrouz Lajili-Djalaï, Cécile Michel, Francesco Brusaporco